Πέμπτη, 29 Μαΐου 2008

Forensic Science Society Conference: Is What You See What You Get?

Forensic Science Society Conference: Is What You See What You Get?

4-6 July 2008
Summer Conference
Derby Renaissance Hotel
Is What You See What You Get?
Convenors: Brian Rankin & Callum Sutherland Programme and Booking Form (.pdf)
Places still available Summer 08 Domestic Arrangements (.pdf)

Friday 4th July 2008
09.00 am Registration
10.30 am Workshops
(a) Role of Crime Scene Manager and Environmental
Experts
Callum Sutherland, La Plante Productions &
John Manlove, Manlove Forensics
(b) Court Room Skills
Ian Stebbings, & Adam Pacifico, BPP Professional
Education
12.30 pm Lunch
14.00 pm Welcome and Open
Brian Rankin, President, The Forensic Science
Society
Supporting the Criminal Justice System – Roles of Various Bodies
14.10 pm Forensic Science Regulator
Forensic Regulator
14.25 pm Skills for Justice
Charles Welsh, Skills for Justice
14.40 pm NPIA
Simon Bramble, Head of Police Science & Forensics
14.55 pm UK Forensic Science Education Group (UKFSEG)
Professor Julie Mennell, Dean, School of Applied
Science, University of Northumbria
15.10 pm Forensic Science Society (FSSoc)
Dr Anya Hunt, Chair of Standards Committee,
Forensic Science Society
15.25 pm Council for the Registration of Forensic Practitioners
CRFP Representative
15.40 pm Tea/Coffee Break
16.10 pm Question Time – Providing assurance to the Criminal
Justice System and Confident to the Public
17.10 pm Close
19.00 pm Dinner and Quiz
Saturday 5th July 2008
09.00 am Security of Passports and Travel Documents
Paul Giles, National Document Fraud Unit, Border &
Immigration Agency
09.45 am Integration of Soil Fingerprinting Techniques Looking
Beyond the Individual
Lorna Dawson, Macaulay Institute, Aberdeen
10.30 am Tea/Coffee Break – Poster Session Viewing
11.00 am The Prospects for a Nascent Neuroimaging of Lie
Detection
Professor Sean Spence, University of Sheffield
11.45 am When Science Doesn’t Meet the Law
Dr Carole McCartney, University of Leeds
12.15 pm Response to the Omagh Judgement on DNA Profiling
Evidence
Peter Gill, University of Strathclyde
12.45 pm Lunch
13.45 pm You Get What You See!
Pam Hamer
14.15 pm Using Raman Imaging to Determine the Sequence of
Crossed Ink Lines on Questioned Documents
T Smith, Renishaw plc
14.45 pm TBC
Ian Stebbings, & Adam Pacifico, BPP Professional Education
15.30 pm Tea/Coffee Break – Announcement of Poster Winner
16.00 pm Forensic Analytical Services Procurement – The
Informed Customer
Emily Burton, GMP & John Gadd, Dorset Police
16.45 pm ‘Contracts, ‘creditation, Register, Resignation… is our
Profession in Jeopardy?”
Roger Robson, Forensic Access Ltd
17.30 pm Close
19.30 pm Dinner and Entertainment
Sunday 6th July 2008
Handling & Reviewing of High Profile Case
09.30 am Managing High Profile Cases
Dr Angela Gallop, LGC Forensics
10.00 am Damilola Taylor Case – SIO View
TBC
10.30 am Tea/Coffee Break
10.50 am Damilola Taylor Case – SIO View continues
TBC
11.15 am Reviewing High Profile Cases
Professor Brian Caddy
12.00 pm Who Should be Registered?
CRFP Representative
12.30 pm Close

Κυριακή, 25 Μαΐου 2008

NEW TLC VISUALISER από την CAMAG


Κυκλοφόρισε ο καινούργιος TLC VISUALIZER από την CAMAG.

Ένα πολύ καλό εργαλείο για TLC χρωματογραφία.

Τα χαρακτηριστικά του :

Images of highest quality ever in the field

  • Powerful linear response high-res CCD camera
  • Newly designed multi wavelength illumination unit
  • Outstanding CAMAG software features
  • Low noise images for best results in qualitative and quantitative chromatogram evaluation

The visual impression provided by a TLC plate showing all samples and standards side-by-side is one of the most convincing arguments to employ Thin-Layer Chromatography. No other chromatographic technique can directly express the result as a color image and make it available for visual evaluation.

A state-of-the-art documentation system is needed to reproducibly acquire and digitally preserve an impression at different wavelengths.


Key features of TLC VISUALIZER documentation and evaluation system:

  • Ergonomic, state of the art design
  • Enhanced illumination unit: visible/white light, UV254, UV366, visible/white transmitted light.
  • Powerful high-resolution 12 bit CCD digital camera with outstanding linearity:
    12 bit = 4095 linear intensity levels.
  • Easy and intuitive handling with CAMAG software winCATS
  • Fast image transfer rates below 1s
  • Automatic image optimization
  • Spot amplification tool to locate even smallest fractions on a TLC plate
  • Optional Professional Image Enhancement: Automatic background correction to increase image sensitivity
  • Optional Image Comparison Viewer for visual comparison of multiple samples on the same screen
  • Quantitative evaluation of digitized images with optional VideoScan software
  • TLC VISUALIZER and winCATS software compliant with GMP/GLP; IQ/OQ qualification and 21CFR11 are provided.

Σάββατο, 24 Μαΐου 2008

Forensic Science Society Autumn Conference & AGM - Research, Evidence & Evaluation


Forensic Science Society

Autumn Conference & AGM – Research, Evidence & Evaluation

31 October – 2 November 2008

Robinson College Executive Centre, Wyboston

Provisional Programme

Convenor: Dr Niamh Nic Daéid

Friday 31 October

Bookings for workshops will be accepted on a first

come first served basis. A fee will be charged to attend

each workshop – see registration booking form

10.3012.30 Workshops

(a) How to Pass the CSI Diploma

Graham Thompson, University of Teesside

(b) TBC

TBC

12.30 Lunch

14:00 Welcome

Brian Rankin, President, The Forensic

Science Society

14.10 Home Office Research Strategy

TBC

14.40 TBC

Professor Jim Fraser, University of

Strathclyde

15.10 TBC

Valerie Bowman, HOSDB

15.30 TBC

Sean Doyle, Forensic Explosives Laboratory

15.50 Tea/Coffee Break

16.20 The relevance of experitmental studies for

interpretation and evaluation of physical

evidence

Ruth Morgan, Jill Dando Institute

16.40 Research in Forensic Geology

Lorna Dawson, Macauley Institute

17.00 Evaluation of Body Fluid Results

Louise McKenna, Forensic Science Lab, Dublin

19.00 Dinner & Awards (Black Tie Optional)

Including Presidential Address

Saturday 1 November

09.00 Vein Mapping in Identification

Helen Meadows, University of Dundee

09.20 EFIT-V

Chris Soloman, University of Kent

09.40 Synthesising the appearance of faces under

arbitrary illumination & camera

geometrics from 3D face data

Marie Petrou, Imperial College London

10.00 The Interpretation of Trace Mass

Spectral Evidence & the use of Isotope

Ratio Mass Spectrometry

Richard Sleeman, Mass Spec Analytical

10.20 Antibody-Functionalised Nanoparticles

Sue Jickells, Kings College London

10.40 Forensic Mycology

Patricia Wiltshire, University of Aberdeen &

University of Gloucestershire

11.00 Tea/Coffee Break

11.30 CAI: what does it mean? Why is it so

important?

Ian Evett

12.10 TBC

Phil Jones, Forensic Science Service

12.50 Lunch

14.10 Evaluating DNA Evidence

Sue Pope, Forensic Science Service

14.50 Evaluating Fingerprint Evidence

Christophe Champod, UNIL, Universite

de Lausanne

15.30 Tea/Coffee Break

16.00 The Interpretation Odyssey of a

Mathematically Challenged Forensic

Scientist

Claude Roux, UTS, Sydney, Australia

16.40 Panel Discussion

17.00 AGM (members only)

19.30 Dinner followed by Entertainment

Sunday 2 November

09.30 How Research Can Help Opinions

Graham Jackson, Advance Forensic Science

10.10 Evaluation of Fibres – A Case Study

Gareth Booth, Forensic Science Service

10.50 Tea/Coffee Break

11.20 The Australian Experience, the Bennet

Case

Claude Roux, UTS Sydney, Australia

12.00 Case Study - TBC

Ian Evett & Christophe Champod

12.40 Close - Brian Rankin, President,

The Forensic Science Society



If you book before 25 July 2008 you are entitled to Early Booking Discounted Prices – details overleaf. To be

eligible for this discount payment must be made in full with the booking or within 30 days with a quoted purchase

order number provided with the booking form.

Flyer: http://www.forensic-science-society.org.uk/pdf/311008.pdf

Quantitative evaluation of europium in blue ballpoint pen inks/offset printing inks tagged with europium thenoyltrifluoroacetonate by spectrofluoromet


Στο καινούργιο τέυχος του Science & Justice (Volume 48, Issue 2, June 2008, Pages 61-66) S.D. Maind, N. Chattopadhyay, Ch. Gandhi, S.C. Kumar και M. Sudersanan παρουσιάζουν μελέτη τους με τίτλο "Quantitative evaluation of europium in blue ballpoint pen inks/offset printing inks tagged with europium thenoyltrifluoroacetonate by spectrofluoromet".
In the new issue of Science & Justice (Volume 48, Issue 2, June 2008, Pages 61-66) S.D. Maind, N. Chattopadhyay, Ch. Gandhi, S.C. Kumar & M. Sudersanan present a paper with the title "Quantitative evaluation of europium in blue ballpoint pen inks/offset printing inks tagged with europium thenoyltrifluoroacetonate by spectrofluoromet".

Περίληξη/Abstract: Tagging of writing/printing inks with suitable inorganic taggants such as rare-earth chelates has the potential to help document examiners identify fraud in sensitive written/printed documents. Selection of rare-earth chelates as taggants primarily depends on the satisfactory sensitivity of analytical determination and the absence of the taggants in normal varieties of inks used for document writing/printing. Spectrofluorometric determination of trace amounts of europium in blue ballpoint pen inks and offset printing inks tagged with europium thenoyltrifluoroacetonate was carried out with sodium tungstate solution. Sodium tungstate acts as a specific reagent that enhances the fluorescence intensity of the Eu3+ ion. The excitation and emission wavelengths are 270 nm and 605 nm respectively. The results were compared with the data obtained with ICP-AES. Satisfactory recoveries were observed with precision better than 5% RSD and comparable accuracy. Under the optimized experimental conditions, detection limits and quantitation limits were determined. The detection limits obtained by spectrofluorometry and ICP-AES were 0.01 μg/mL and 0.006 μg/mL respectively whereas the limits of quantitation were about 0.03 μg/mL and 0.018 μg/mL respectively. The spectrofluorometric method is rapid, selective, sensitive and accurate for the determination of europium in blue ballpoint pen ink and offset printing inks and may be suitable for application in the examination of sensitive documents to aid in document related crime investigation. The advantages and limitations of the tagging approach and proposed analytical techniques are discussed.


Σύνδεσμος στο άρθρο/ Link to article

Συνεργασία της Wacom και της E-Ink Corp


Η εταιρία που κατασκευάζει ταμπλέτες (tamblets) Wacom και η εταιρία που κατασκευάζει το "ψηφιακό χαρτί" που χρησιμοποιούν τα περισσότερα ηλεκτρονικά βιβλία (ereaders), E Ink ανακοίνωσαν στις 19 Μαϊου την στενή τους συνεργασία προκειμένου να συνδιαστούν η τεχνογνωσία & τεχνολογία των δύο εταιριών στην παραγωγή ηλεκτρονικών βιβλίων/ τετραδίων νέας γενιάς.

http://www.eink.com/press/releases/Wacom_E_Ink_051908.pdf

Η τεχνολογία και των δύο εταιριών ήδη έχει συγκεραστεί στα προϊόντα της iRex (π.χ. iLiad).

Πέμπτη, 22 Μαΐου 2008

The probative character of Forensic Handwriting Examiners’ identification and elimination opinions on questioned signatures


Στο καινούργιο τευχος του Forensic Science International (Volume 178, Issue 1, Pages 1-82 (10 June 2008)), οι Bryan Found και Doug Rogers παρουσιάζει μια εργασία με τίτλο: " The probative character of Forensic Handwriting Examiners’ identification and elimination opinions on questioned signatures "

In the new Issue of Forensic Science International (Volume 178, Issue 1, Pages 1-82 (10 June 2008)), Bryan Found and Doug Rogers present a paper titled:" The probative character of Forensic Handwriting Examiners’ identification and elimination opinions on questioned signatures "

Περίληψη/Abstract: Τhis 5-year study investigated the character of Forensic Handwriting Examiners’ (FHEs) authorship opinions on questioned signatures through the medium of blind validation trials. Twenty-nine thousand eight hundred and eleven authorship opinions were expressed by FHEs on trial kits comprising randomized questioned genuine signatures (written by the specimen writer), disguised signatures (written by the specimen writer) and simulated signatures (not written by the specimen writer). Results showed that, as a group, FHEs were significantly more confident at identifying writers’ genuine signatures than identifying writers’ disguised signatures or eliminating specimen writers from having authored simulated signatures. It is proposed that the difference in FHE confidence arises from the difficulty they have in deciding which alternative authorship explanation accounts for perceived combinations of similar and dissimilar features between specimen and questioned signatures.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2008.02.004


Passport examination by a confocal-type laser profile microscope


Στο καινούργιο τευχος του Forensic Science International (Volume 178, Issue 1, Pages 1-82 (10 June 2008)), ο Shigeru Sugawara παρουσιάζει μια εργασία με τίτλο: "Passport examination by a confocal-type laser profile microscope "

In the new Issue of Forensic Science International (Volume 178, Issue 1, Pages 1-82 (10 June 2008)), Shigeru Sugawara present a paper titled:"Passport examination by a confocal-type laser profile microscope "

Περίληψη/Abstract: The author proposes a nondestructive and highly precise method of measuring the thickness of a film pasted on a passport using a confocal-type laser profile microscope. The effectiveness of this method in passport examination is demonstrated. A confocal-type laser profile microscope is used to create profiles of the film surface and film–paper interface; these profiles are used to calculate the film thickness by employing an algorithm developed by the author. The film thicknesses of the passport samples—35 genuine and 80 counterfeit Japanese passports—are measured nondestructively. The intra-sample standard deviation of the film thicknesses of the genuine and counterfeit Japanese passports was of the order of 1 μm The intersample standard deviations of the film thicknesses of passports forged using the same tools and techniques are expected to be of the order of 1 μm. The thickness values of the films on the machine-readable genuine passports ranged between 31.95 μm and 36.95 μm. The likelihood ratio of this method in the authentication of machine-readable Japanese genuine passports is 11.7. Therefore, this method is effective for the authentification of genuine passports. Since the distribution of the film thickness of all forged passports was considerably larger than the accuracy of this method, this method is considered effective also for revealing the relation among the forged passports and acquiring proof of the crime.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2008.02.004


Micro-Raman analysis for the identification of pigments from 19th and 20th century paintings


Στο καινούργιο τευχος του Journal of Raman Spectroscopy (May 2008), οι Cristina L. Aibéo, Stien Goffin, Olivier Schalm, Geert van der Snickt, Nathalie Laquière, Peter Eyskens & Koen Janssens παρουσιάζουν μια εργασία με τίτλο: "Μικροσκοπική φασματοσκοπία Raman για την ταυτοποίηση βαφών σε έργα τέχνης του 19ου και 20ου αιώνα/ Micro-Raman analysis for the identification of pigments from 19th and 20th century paintings ".

In the new Issue of Journal of Raman Spectroscopy (May 2008), Cristina L. Aibéo, Stien Goffin, Olivier Schalm, Geert van der Snickt, Nathalie Laquière, Peter Eyskens & Koen Janssens present a paper titled: "Micro-Raman analysis for the identification of pigments from 19th and 20th century paintings".

Περίληψη/Abstract: In this article, results using confocal µ-Raman to analyse the cross-section of paint samples are presented. Results obtained with light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and micro-X-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF) are mentioned and compared to the ones obtained with confocal (MRS). In some cases, pigment identification was possible only by combining analytical results from different techniques.The samples were drawn from five paintings belonging to the Academy of Fine Arts of Antwerp, which are part of a collection of 34 paintings made by students from the Academy between 1819 and 1920. Since, on the one hand, the painting techniques and materials, especially pigments, used in this period are still not completely known, and on the other hand, this collection constitutes a very important and reliable resource of information, these paintings were chosen for a systematic investigation. They represent the evolution of painting in Belgium over approximately a century.

Article

Raman spectroscopy of synthetic organic pigments used in 20th century works of art


Στο καινούργιο τευχος του Journal of Raman Spectroscopy (May 2008), οι Franziska Schulte, Klaus-Werner Brzezinka, Karin Lutzenberger, Heike Stege & Ulrich Panne παρουσιάζουν μια εργασία με τίτλο: "Φασματοσκοπία Raman συνθετικών οργανικών βαφών που χρησιμοποιήθηκαν σε έργα τέχνης του 20ου αιώνα / Raman spectroscopy of synthetic organic pigments used in 20th century works of art ".

In the new Issue of Journal of Raman Spectroscopy (May 2008), Franziska Schulte, Klaus-Werner Brzezinka, Karin Lutzenberger, Heike Stege & Ulrich Panne present a paper titled: "Raman spectroscopy of synthetic organic pigments used in 20th century works of art".

Περίληψη/Abstract: Raman microscopy allows a non-destructive characterisation of inorganic and organic painting materials such as pigments and organic dyestuffs. The objectives of this study are the more recent organic pigments typically present in paintings and other art works from the 20th century. More than 20 organic synthetic pigments from different chemical classes could be identified by Raman spectroscopy using different excitation wavelengths (457.9, 476.5, 487.9, 514.5, 632.8, and 1064 nm). To evaluate the performance for real paint samples, varying paint mixtures of the Hansa Yellow pigment PY 3 and the binding medium Mowilith, a polyvinyl acetate (PVAC) compound, were characterised; PY 3 was determined at a 1 wt% level in the binder. In addition, commercial tube paints containing the quinacridone violet PV 19 were studied. The pigment was clearly identified in all of these more complex oil and acrylic paints. Finally, alizarin (PR 83) and a green copper phthalocyanine pigment (PG 7) could unambiguously be identified by Raman microscopy in the painting Woman with mandolin in yellow and red of Max Beckmann dating 1950. The discovery of a red naphthol AS pigment by Raman spectroscopy in a sample from the Three field workers by Georg Baselitz (1964/1965) demonstrated that in some cases complementary chromatographic methods are needed for a comprehensive identification of the organic pigments.

Article

Ηλεκτρονικό Διαβατήριο από την Samsung / ePassport from Samsung

Σύμφωνα με τον ιστότοπο http://www.securitydocumentworld.com η Samsung σε συνεργασία με την γερμανική Bundesdruckerei παρουσίασαν ένα εύκαμπτο διαβατήριο με ηλεκτρονική LED οθόνη.
Από το securitydocumentworld.com:
Tommorow’s ID documents will work without contact and without internal batteries. The integration of a display makes electronic ID documents even more difficult to forge and opens up the way for new security applications, they claim.

Samsung SDI developed the display to be just 300µm thick. However, even with the integrated colour display, the data page of the ePassport is still only 700µm thick, the companies claim.

The display comprises an active matrix display with organic light emitting diodes (AMOLED). This means that located behind every pixel of the display is an active electronic circuit with low power consumption. AMOLED displays are said to provide excellent colour images and can be produced in much thinner formats that conventional LCDs.

The materials used for the display are heat-resistant, so that the passport card can be laminated and hence protected against manipulation.




Τρίτη, 6 Μαΐου 2008

Identification of iron-gall inks with near-infrared Raman microspectroscopy


Στο καινούργιο τευχος του Journal of Raman Spectroscopy (May 2008), οι Alana S. Lee, Vincent Otieno-Alego & Dudley C. Creagh παρουσιάζουν μια εργασία με τίτλο: "Ταυτοποίηση μελανιών μεταλλικής ακίδας με near-infrared Raman μικρο-φασματοσκοπία μεταλικής Identification of iron-gall inks with near-infrared Raman microspectroscopy ".

In the new Issue of Journal of Raman Spectroscopy (May 2008), Alana S. Lee, Vincent Otieno-Alego and Dudley C. Creagh present a paper titled: "Identification of iron-gall inks with near-infrared Raman microspectroscopy".

Περίληψη/Abstract: The identification of iron-gall inks on a number of 18th, 19th, and 20th century documents and a 12th century manuscript has been conducted using near-infrared Raman microspectroscopy. These historic iron-gall inks were found to display characteristic Raman bands generally occurring around 1475 cm-1, between 1310 and 1350 cm-1 (variable), 490-640 cm-1 (combined broad band), and 400 cm-1. These bands have promise as analytical spectroscopic markers for in situ non-destructive Raman identification of iron-gall ink on historic collections and were in good agreement with Raman data collected for laboratory-prepared iron-gall ink complexes and inks prepared following traditional iron-gall ink recipes. All historic ink spectra contained a fluorescent background, the degree of which varied between samples.

Article

Εξαλείψιμο χαρτί από την Xerox /Erasable paper by Xerox


H XEROX ανακοίνωσε την κατασκευή του πρώτου εξαλείψημου χαρτιού, το οποίο αναμένεται να κυκλοφορήσει σε ένα χρόνο.

Το χαρτί αυτό σβήνει μόνο του μετά από 16 me 24 ώρες περίπου, ώστε να μπορεί να επαναχρησιμοποιηθεί ξανά και ξανά.

Περισσότερα από το επίσημο site της XEROX:
Experimental Xerox Paper Erases Itself, Results In Temporary Documents On Reusable Paper
http://www.xerox.com/innovation/exp_paper.shtml

(Η φωτογραφία είναι από το site της ΧΕROX.)

Περί διαχωρισμού της γραφής διδύμων/ On the Discriminability of the Handwriting of Twins


Στο καινούργιο τευχος του Journal of Forensic Sciences ( Volume 53 Issue 2 Page 430-446, March 2008), οι Sargur Srihari, Chen Huang και Harish Srinivasan παρουσιάζουν μια εργασία με τίτλο: "Περί διαχωρισμού της γραφής διδύμων/On the Discriminability of the Handwriting of Twins ".

In the new Issue of Journal of Forensic Sciences International ( Volume 53 Issue 2 Page 430-446, March 2008),Sargur Srihari, Chen Huang and Harish Srinivasan present a paper titled: "On the Discriminability of the Handwriting of Twins".

Περίληψη/Abstract: As handwriting is influenced by physiology, training, and other behavioral factors, a study of the handwriting of twins can shed light on the individuality of handwriting. This paper describes the methodology and results of such a study where handwriting samples of twins were compared by an automatic handwriting verification system. The results complement that of a previous study where a diverse population was used. The present study involves samples of 206 pairs of twins, where each sample consisted of a page of handwriting. The verification task was to determine whether two half-page documents (where the original samples were divided into upper and lower halves) were written by the same individual. For twins there were 1236 verification cases—including 824 tests where the textual content of writing was different, and 412 tests where it was the same. An additional set of 1648 test cases were obtained from handwriting samples of nontwins (general population). To make the handwriting comparison, the system computed macro features (overall pictorial attributes), micro features (characteristics of individual letters), and style features (characteristics of whole-word shapes and letter pairs). Four testing scenarios were evaluated: twins and nontwins writing the same text and writing different texts. Results of the verification tests show that the handwriting of twins is less discriminable than that of nontwins: an overall error rate of 12.91% for twins and 3.7% for nontwins. Error rates with identical twins were higher than with fraternal twins. Error rates in all cases can be arbitrarily reduced by rejecting (not making a decision on) borderline cases. A level of confidence in the results obtained is given by the fact that system error rates are comparable to that of humans (lower than that of lay persons and higher than that of questioned document examiners [QDEs]).


http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1556-4029.2008.00682.x

Controlled electrostatic methodology for imaging indentations in documents


Στο καινούργιο τευχος του Forensic Science International (Volume 177, Issues 2-3, 20 May 2008, Pages 97-104), οι Luke Yaraskavitch, Matthew Graydon, Tobin Tanaka και Lay-Keow Ng παρουσιάζουν μια εργασία με τίτλο: "Controlled electrostatic methodology for imaging indentations in documents".

In the new Issue of Forensic Science International (Volume 177, Issues 2-3, 20 May 2008, Pages 97-104), Luke Yaraskavitch, Matthew Graydon, Tobin Tanaka and Lay-Keow Ng present a paper titled: "Controlled electrostatic methodology for imaging indentations in documents".

Περίληψη/Abstract: The electrostatic process for imaging indentations on documents using the ESDA device is investigated under controlled experimental settings. An in-house modified commercial xerographic developer housing is used to control the uniformity and volume of toner deposition, allowing for reproducible image development. Along with this novel development tool, an electrostatic voltmeter and fixed environmental conditions facilitate an optimization process. Sample documents are preconditioned in a humidity cabinet with microprocessor control, and the significant benefit of humidification above 70% RH on image quality is verified. Improving on the subjective methods of previous studies, image quality analysis is carried out in an objective and reproducible manner using the PIAS-II. For the seven commercial paper types tested, the optimum ESDA operating point is found to be at an electric potential near −400 V at the Mylar surface; however, for most paper types, the optimum operating regime is found to be quite broad, spanning relatively small electric potentials between −200 and −550 V. At −400 V, the film right above an indented area generally carries a voltage which is 30–50 V less negative than the non-indented background. In contrast with Seward's findings [G.H. Seward, Model for electrostatic imaging of forensic evidence via discharge through Mylar–paper path, J. Appl. Phys. 83 (3) (1998) 1450–1456; G.H. Seward, Practical implications of the charge transport model for electrostatic detection apparatus (ESDA), J. Forensic Sci. 44 (4) (1999) 832–836], a period of charge decay before image development is not required when operating in this optimal regime. A brief investigation of the role played by paper-to-paper friction during the indentation process is conducted using our optimized development method.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2007.11.004

Stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry and physical comparison for the forensic examination of grip-seal plastic bags


Στο καινούργιο τευχος του Forensic Science International (Volume 177, Issues 2-3, 20 May 2008, Pages 214-220), οι Erica Taylor, James F. Carter, Jenny C. Hill, Carolyn Morton, Niamh Nic Daeid και Richard Sleeman παρουσιάζουν μια εργασία με τίτλο:"Stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry and physical comparison for the forensic examination of grip-seal plastic bags "

In the new Issue of Forensic Science International (Volume 177, Issues 2-3, 20 May 2008, Pages 214-220), Erica Taylor, James F. Carter, Jenny C. Hill, Carolyn Morton, Niamh Nic Daeid and Richard Sleeman present a paper titled:"Stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry and physical comparison for the forensic examination of grip-seal plastic bags "

Περίληψη/Abstract: Plastic bags are frequently used to package drugs, explosives and other contraband. There exists, therefore, a requirement in forensic casework to compare bags found at different locations. This is currently achieved almost exclusively by the use of physical comparisons such as birefringence patterns. This paper discusses some of the advantages and shortcomings of this approach, and presents stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) as a supplementary tool for effecting comparisons of this nature. Carbon and hydrogen isotopic data are presented for sixteen grip-seal plastic bags from a wide range of sources, in order to demonstrate the range of values which is likely to be encountered. Both isotopic and physical comparison (specifically birefringence) techniques are then applied to the analysis of rolls of bags from different manufacturing lots from a leading manufacturer. Both approaches are able to associate bags from a common production batch. IRMS can be applied to small fragments which are not amenable to physical comparisons, and is able to discriminate bags which could be confused using birefringence patterns alone. Similarly, in certain cases birefringence patterns discriminate bags with similar isotopic compositions. The two approaches are therefore complementary. When more than one isotopically distinct region exists within a bag (e.g. the grip-seal is distinct from the body) the ability to discriminate and associate bags is greatly increased.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2008.01.006

Decision theoretic properties of forensic identification: Underlying logic and argumentative implications

Στο καινούργιο τευχος του Forensic Science International (Volume 177, Issues 2-3, 20 May 2008, 120-132), οι A. Biedermann, S. Bozza και F. Taroni παρουσιάζουν μια εργασία με τίτλο: Decision theoretic properties of forensic identification: "Underlying logic and argumentative implications"

In the new Issue of Forensic Science International (Volume 177, Issues 2-3, 20 May 2008, Pages 120-132), A. Biedermann, S. Bozza and F. Taroni present a paper titled: "Decision theoretic properties of forensic identification: Underlying logic and argumentative implications"

Περίληψη/Abstract:

The field of forensic science has profited from recent advances in the elicitation of various kinds probabilistic data. These provide the basis for implementing probabilistic inference procedures (e.g., in terms of likelihood ratios) that address the task of discriminating among competing target propositions. There is ongoing discussion, however, whether forensic identification, that is, a conclusion that associates a potential source (such as an individual or object) with a given item of scientific evidence (e.g., a biological stain or a tool mark), can, if ever, be based on purely probabilistic argument. With regard to this issue, the present paper proposes to analyze the process of forensic identification from a decision theoretic point of view. Existing probabilistic inference procedures are used therein as an integral part. The idea underlying the proposed analyses is that inference and decision are connected in the sense that the former is the point of departure for the latter. As such the approach forms a coordinated whole, that is a framework also known in the context as ‘full Bayesian (decision) approach’. This study points out that, as a logical extension to purely probabilistic reasoning, a decision theoretic conceptualization of forensic identification allows the content and structure of arguments to be examined from a reasonably distinct perspective and common fallacious interpretations to be avoided.

http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0379073807008055