Πέμπτη, 27 Δεκεμβρίου 2007
Τρίτη, 11 Δεκεμβρίου 2007
Classification and individualisation of black ballpoint pen inks using principal component analysis of UV–vis absorption spectra
Στο καινούργιο τευχος του Journal of Forensic Sciences International (Volume 174, Issue 1, 15 January 2008, Pages 16-25 ), οι Craig D. Adam, Sarah L. Sherratt & Vladimir L. Zholobenko παρουσιάζουν μια εργασία με τίτλο: "Classification and individualisation of black ballpoint pen inks using principal component analysis of UV–vis absorption spectra ".
In the new Issue of Journal of Forensic Sciences International (Volume 174, Issue 1, 15 January 2008, Pages 16-25 ), οι Craig D. Adam, Sarah L. Sherratt and Vladimir L. Zholobenko Meenakshi Mahajan & S.P. Arya present a paper titled: "Classification and individualisation of black ballpoint pen inks using principal component analysis of UV–vis absorption spectra Tape".
Περίληψη/Abstract: The technique of principal component analysis has been applied to the UV–vis spectra of inks obtained from a wide range of black ballpoint pens available in the UK market. Both the pen ink and material extracted from the ink line on paper have been examined. Here, principal component analysis characterised each spectrum within a group through the numerical loadings attached to the first few principal components. Analysis of the spectra from multiple measurements on the same brand of pen showed excellent reproducibility and clear discrimination between inks that was supported by statistical analysis. Indeed it was possible to discriminate between the pen ink and the ink line from all brands examined in this way, suggesting that the solvent extraction process may have an influence on these results. For the complete set of 25 pens, interpretation of the loadings for the first few principal components showed that both the pen inks and the extracted ink lines may be classified in an objective manner and in agreement with the results of parallel thin layer chromatography studies. Within each class almost all inks could be individualised. Further work has shown that principal component analysis may be used to identify a particular ink from a database of reference UV–vis spectra and a strategy for developing this approach is suggested.Forensic Science International: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T6W-4NF2NHG-1&_user=10&_coverDate=01%2F15%2F2008&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=522be83d3ff75cde594bc4371ada28f4
Τετάρτη, 3 Οκτωβρίου 2007
In the new issue of Journal of Forensic Sciences (Volume 52 Issue 5 Page 1212-1213, September 2007 ), Meenakshi Mahajan & S.P. Arya present a paper titled: "Examination of Writings Concealed by Black Pressure Sensitive Adhesive Tape".
Examination of concealed writing is often a challenge for forensic document examiners. Although the published literature describes many techniques, these are often only successful when the writing has been concealed by pencil, pen, or by spreading inks of different tint or by smearing of the writing with colored fluids. When black pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) tape is used, these procedures are ineffective. The present report describes the use of a straight chain hydrocarbon to remove the PSA tape and allow a comparison of the concealed writing with that of a suspect. The use of the solvent had no observable effect on either the writing or the substrate. The procedure is rapid and easy to use and is also effective with other colored PSA tapes.
Journal of Forensic Sciences: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1556-4029.2007.00537.x
The Detection of Multiply Charged Dyes Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry for the Forensic Examination of Pen Ink Dye
Στο καινούργιο e-τευχος του Journal of Forensic Sciences International (Volume 52 Issue 5 Page 1205-1211, September 2007 ), οι Jamie D. Dunn και John Allison παρουσιάζουν μια εργασία με τίτλο: "The Detection of Multiply Charged Dyes Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry for the Forensic Examination of Pen Ink Dyes Directly from Paper".
In the new Issue of Journal of Forensic Sciences I (Volume 52 Issue 5 Page 1205-1211, September 2007 ), Jamie D. Dunn & John Allison present a paper titled: "The Detection of Multiply Charged Dyes Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry for the Forensic Examination of Pen Ink Dyes Directly from Paper".
Laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) is emerging as a technique for questioned document examination. Its use is limited to detecting ink dyes that are neutral or singly charged. Several inks contain dyes that are multiply charged and LDMS cannot be employed for their identification. We have successfully detected >20 polyionic dyes that can be used in the manufacture of inks using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) MS, directly from paper, with the matrix, 2-(4-hydroxyphenylazo)benzoic acid (HABA), and the additive, diammonium hydrogen citrate (DAHC). For example, Acid Violet 49, a charged dye containing one positively-charged site and two negatively charged sulfonate groups, cannot be detected by LDMS, but forms intact, singly charged ions in the MALDI MS experiment. The method described is also useful for identifying multiply charged dye mixtures that are used in modern pen inks.
Journal of Forensic Sciences: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1556-4029.2007.00535.x
Η απάτη αποκαλύφθηκξε όταν η ιδιοκτήτρια του καταστήματος όπου είχε παραγγήλει τις πλαστές σφραφίδες, επικοινώνησε με τα αντίστοιχα αστυνομικά τμήματα.
Ερευνάται η πιθανότητα να υπάρχει κύκλωμα έκδοσης πλαστών πιστοποιητικών.
Παρασκευή, 31 Αυγούστου 2007
Τετάρτη, 22 Αυγούστου 2007
In the new Issue of Forensic Science International (Volume 172, Issue 1, 2 October 2007, Pages 10-16 ), R. Marquisa, F. Taronia, S. Bozzab & M. Schmittbuhlc rpresent a paper titled: "Size influence on shape of handwritten characters loops".
In the practice of forensic handwriting experts, the size of the writing on a questioned document may be different from that of known samples. In this study, the hypothesis of shape invariance of handwritten closed loops across size increasing was tested. A Fourier methodology was applied to 2325 small letters (591 a loops, 547 d loops, 596 o loops and 591 q loops) and 692 enlarged letters (162 a loops, 173 d loops, 173 o loops and 184 q loops), in a population of 13 writers who were asked to write letters in their usual size and about three times larger. Most of the writers presented similar modifications when increasing the size of the loops; they produced enlarged loops significantly more round and less slanted towards the right or the left. Furthermore, a discrimination was demonstrated between the writers on the basis of the enlarged loops, with a correct classification rate superior to 90%, whatever the letter (a, d, o or q). A classification of the enlarged loops in their corresponding writer was then possible. On the contrary, when comparing the enlarged loops to the small ones, almost one half of the enlarged loops were allocated to a wrong writer. Shape invariance was thus not supported for this particular application. Consequently, when comparing documents with a different writing size, differences in loops shape should be interpreted cautiously because they may be due to a different writer, but they may also be due to an enlargement of the loops. Therefore, reference material of similar writing size to that of the questioned writing should be requested for the comparison of handwritten loops.
Παρασκευή, 10 Αυγούστου 2007
Στο καινούργιο e-τευχος του Forensic Science International (Volume 171, Issue 2-3, 13 September 2007, Pages 180-189 ), οι Babak Mahdian και Stanislav Saic παρουσιάζουν μια εργασία με τίτλο: "Detection of copy-move forgery using a method based on blur moment invariants".
In the new Issue of Forensic Science International (Volume 171, Issue 2-3, 13 September 2007, Pages 180-189 ), Babak Mahdian & Stanislav Saic present a paper titled: "Detection of copy–move forgery using a method based on blur moment invariants".
Περίληψη/Abstract:In our society digital images are a powerful and widely used communication medium. They have an important impact on our life. In recent years, due to the advent of high-performance commodity hardware and improved human–computer interfaces, it has become relatively easy to create fake images. Modern, easy to use image processing software enables forgeries that are undetectable by the naked eye. In this work we propose a method to automatically detect and localize duplicated regions in digital images. The presence of duplicated regions in an image may signify a common type of forgery called copy–move forgery. The method is based on blur moment invariants, which allows successful detection of copy–move forgery, even when blur degradation, additional noise, or arbitrary contrast changes are present in the duplicated regions. These modifications are commonly used techniques to conceal traces of copy–move forgery. Our method works equally well for lossy format such as JPEG. We demonstrate our method on several images affected by copy–move forgery.
Σύνδεσμος/ Link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T6W-4MJBTMV-1&_user=10&_coverDate=09%2F13%2F2007&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=92226831e72dc0baba6bf5b34d7f952f
Παρασκευή, 3 Αυγούστου 2007
Γερμανός Προγραμματιστής καταφέρνει να αντιγραψει τα καινούργια ηλεκτρονικά διαβατήρια των Η.Π.Α. & άλλων χωρών.
A German computer security consultant has shown that he can clone the electronic passports that the United States and other countries are beginning to distribute this yearWired: Hackers Clone E-Passports http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2006/08/71521
Τετάρτη, 25 Ιουλίου 2007
Κυκλοφόρησε το νέο τεύχος του Journal of Forensic Sciences (JOFSC), Volume 52, Number 4, July 2007. Ακολουθούν τα περιεχόμενά που αφορούν τηε Δικαστική Γραφολογία:
The new issue of the Journal of Forensic Sciences (JOFSC), Volume 52, Number 4, July 2007 has been released.Here are the contents of the articles concerning Questioned Documents:
- D.L.Hammond: Validation of LAB color mode as Nondestructive Method to differentiate Black Ballpoint Pen Inks (pp.967)
- S.Sugawara: Passport Examination by Polarized Infrared Spectrum (pp. 974)
Passport Examination by Polarized Infrared Spectra
Abstract: In this study, a new nondestructive technique for passport examination is proposed. In this technique, linearly polarized light is used to measure Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) reflectance spectra of films on the biographical data page. Thirty genuine and thirty-five counterfeit Japanese passports and five marketed films pasted on name cards were examined. The measured spectra were analyzed as follows. The absorption spectra were obtained by the Kramers–Kronig transformations of reflectance spectra. The peak ratios were then calculated from the absorption spectra by adding the peak areas at 1126 and 1263 cm1 and dividing the result by the peak area at 1727 cm1. When nonpolarized light was used, the samples could not be distinguished by comparing the peak ratios. However, when polarized light was used, they were successfully distinguished by the comparison. Therefore, polarized light is useful for the forensic discrimination of passport films by the measurement of FT-IR spectra.Validation of LAB Color Mode as a Nondestructive Method to Differentiate Black Ballpoint Pen Inks
Abstract: Nondestructive digital processing methods such as lab color mode (available in Adobe® Photoshop®) are emerging as alternative methods for forensic document examiners to use when attempting to differentiate writing instrument inks. Although these techniques appear to be viable, little data currently exists regarding the known or potential error rates associated with these techniques. Without adequate data, the validity and reliability of these techniques, including lab color, can not be established. In an attempt to begin to address these issues, 44 black ballpoint ink pens were obtained and used to create 990 pen-pair samples for analysis using established lab color mode techniques. No erroneous findings of "different" were reported following the examination of the known pen-pair combinations in which the same pen was used to create the samples (n = 44). Of the remaining 946 samples, 737 pen-pair samples were differentiated using the lab color mode method, while 209 samples were unable to be differentiated and were recorded as either being "similar" (n = 153) or "unsure" (n = 56). Comparison of the lab color mode results with the results obtained through additional testing using traditional infrared reflectance and infrared luminescence test methods showed that lab color differentiated 102 pen-pair samples (11%; 102/946) that were not differentiated using a VSC-4C.
Σάββατο, 21 Ιουλίου 2007
Science Daily — Primetime crime drama meets reality in forensic research taking place at the Midwest Forensics Resource Center at Iowa State University. US Department of Ames Laboratory scientists are using the new Direct Analysis in Real Time mass spectrometry interface, which has made a guest appearance on the popular crime show "CSI: New York," to build a library of ink mass spectra using samples from the US Secret Service. The mass spectra library will help identify inks on fraudulent documents and other crime evidence.
Researchers at the Midwest Forensics Resource Center at Iowa State University are building a library of ink profiles to help forensic scientists identify inks on fraudulent documents and other evidence. MFRC scientists will pair mass spectrometry with a new sampling technique called Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) to reveal the chemical makeup of ink faster and in greater detail than ever before.
DART mass spectrometry analyzes ink by creating a stream of warm gas containing excited-state helium atoms or nitrogen molecules in the DART source. The gas stream is pointed at an ink sample, and the gas and excited-state species evaporate and ionize molecules from the sample. A mass spectrometer measures the production of ions to create mass spectrum data for each ink sample tested.
In contrast to other types of ink analysis, like liquid chromatography, which require cutting a small sample from a questioned document, DART mass spectrometry is able to test documents without physically or visually altering them. The questioned document is open to the environment, and all sizes of materials may be tested in their original form.
According to Roger Jones, U.S Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory associate chemist, "The great thing about the DART system is that it can sample the ink straight off the paper. You don't have to extract a sample first. Before DART, we had to cut a little bit of sample out and dissolve it in solvent for analysis. So, now we can look at the document without visibly altering it, which is good for forensic science. We don't destroy the evidence."
Eliminating the sampling extraction process saves busy forensic scientists time. Jones said that benefit alone would have been enough to consider the DART method a success.
"We would have been satisfied with the mass spectra looking basically like the spectra obtained by the old extraction mass spectrometry methods, because the DART system still gets around damaging the sample and reduces the work involved in analysis," said Jones, "Time constraints are the major complaint of every forensic scientist. Their caseloads are so large that they just don't have the time to do traditional ink analysis."
But, on top of saving time and preserving evidence, the DART method also yields richer data about ink samples than previous sampling methods. Initial tests of the DART system indicate that the mass spectra reveal more components of the ink than conventional mass spectra. Using DART, forensic scientists may be able to differentiate between inks like never before.
Jones and John McClelland, Ames Laboratory senior physicist and DART project leader, plan a three-phase project. Currently in the first phase, they are experimenting to determine the best way to analyze inks and build the library.
The library of ink mass spectra will be produced in the second phase of the project. Researchers will use samples from the U.S. Secret Service International Ink Library to create a comprehensive, vetted, and computer searchable library of mass spectra of the more than 8,000 inks the Secret Service has compiled.
The third phase of the project will focus on creating computer software used to store and access the mass spectra library.
"Commercial mass spectrometry software available today is all based on the old style of mass spectrometry. We get a different type of data from DART. So, the assumptions used in existing software for searching and matching mass spectra do not work the best for DART," said Jones.
The U.S. Department of Justice's National Institute of Justice is funding the project.
Note: This story has been adapted from a news release issued by DOE/Ames Laboratory.
Δευτέρα, 16 Ιουλίου 2007
Ακολουθούν τα περιεχόμενά του:
The new issue of the Journal of the American Society of Questioned Document Examiners (JASQDE), Volume 10, Number 1, June 2007 has been released.
Here are the contents:
- C.R.McClary: Design & Security Features of the Euro
- T.A.Tanaka: Voltage & Identation Development
- W.D.Mazzella & R.Marquis: Forensic Image Analysis of Laser-Printed Documents
- J.L.Streeter, G.P.Kettering & K.B.Zercie: Invisible Ink: A Refresher for Document Examiners
- Y-S P. Cheng: A study on the influence of wearing a glove on handwriting by chinese in Hong Kong.
Δευτέρα, 2 Ιουλίου 2007
A japanese robotics company introduced a prototype of a robotic human hand, that operates using condensed air, and that can carry out delicate movements, like holding a pen. Squse company, in Kyoto, which specializes in robots and laboratory automation systems, introduced the mechanical arm with five fingers, weighting 400 gr, that can move with technical muscles controlled by air pressure. 50 such hands will be sent to foreign research institutes and companies. This technology is probably going to be used commercially in the following 5 years.
skai.gr 28/06/2007 http://www.skai.gr/master_story.php?id=52461
Πέμπτη, 14 Ιουνίου 2007
A 56 year old man was arrested. He is charged for forgery, fraud & false certification. The perpetrator for four years found drugs addict from the center of athens, led to the authorities to issue identification cards, and then he issued loans from banks. With the money he had bought 26 luxurious cars. The 56 year old man had been condemned in the past, however he had not been detained.
Τετάρτη, 13 Ιουνίου 2007
Diary of an Astronaut: Examination of the Remains of the Late Israeli Astronaut Colonel Ilan Ramon's Crew Notebook
Volume 52 Issue 3 Page 731Issue 3 - 737 - May 2007
Diary of an Astronaut: Examination of the Remains of the Late Israeli Astronaut Colonel Ilan Ramon's Crew Notebook Recovered After the Loss of NASA's Space Shuttle Columbia
Abstract:Two months after the fatal re-entering into the Earth's atmosphere of Columbia flight STS-107, the remains of Israeli astronaut Colonel Ilan Ramon's Crew Notebook were found strewn in a field in San Augustine County, TX. The random pile of papers was found to have survived the calamity of the Shuttle's disintegration remarkably well. Most of the papers recovered were torn and/or washed out to varying degrees but only mildly charred around the edges. The sheets of paper could be categorized into four groups: Group I: eight sides of paper written while in space in black ink and in pencil—Ramon's personal diary; the writing on these eight sides of paper survived well and is only missing where the pages were torn. Small fragments found in the field were physically matched to holes in the pages thus locating their original positions in the text. Group II: six sides of technical preparation notes written by Ramon before the mission. The writing on these pages was washed out entirely, but much of it was visualized using infrared luminescence. Group III: eight sides of personal notes prepared by Ramon before the mission written in blue ink. The writing on these pages was barely visible to the naked eye and not visualized by infrared luminescence, but was made largely legible by digital enhancement imaging. Group IV: a few sides of printed technical information. These pages were mostly intact and were not examined at length as they contained standard printed material. After completion of examinations at the Questioned Document Laboratory of the Israel Police, the diary was transferred to the Paper Conservation Department of the Israel Museum for preservation and strengthening treatments.
Δευτέρα, 11 Ιουνίου 2007
Ο Lee Malvo είναι ο θετός γιός του Τζον Μουχάμαντ, γνωστού και ως «σνάιπερ της Ουάσιγκτον», ο οποίος καταδικάστηκε σε θάνατο.
The defence of Lee Malvo, submitted an application to the Judge of Fairfax County so that the deposit of experts of voice analysis, Handwriting, balistic, DNA and fingerprints is allowed, trying to rebut the procecussion. Lee Malvo is the adopted son of John Mohammed, known and as "The Washington Sniper", which was sentenced to death.
The NEW YORK TIMES: http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D01E5DD1F3EF936A25750C0A9659C8B63&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss
Δευτέρα, 4 Ιουνίου 2007
Fraunhofer Institute built a machine to reassemble piece by piece 45 million shreded documents from Stazi. The scientists of Fraunhofer Institute have already received alot of demands for the so-called E-Puzzler machine from many countries.
The GUARDIAN: http://www.guardian.co.uk/germany/article/0,,2076185,00.html
Fraunhofer Institute: http://www.fraunhofer.de/fhg/EN/index.jsp
Σάββατο, 2 Ιουνίου 2007
- F.A.Q. Δικαστικής Γραφολογίας: http://www.handwriting.gr/index.files/FAQ.htm
- Εξέταση Φωτοτυπικών Αντιγράφων: http://www.handwriting.gr/index.files/copy.htm
- Εκπαίδευση του Δικαστικού Γραφολόγου: http://www.handwriting.gr/index.files/training.htm
- Επιστημονική Διατύπωση Συμπερασμάτων: http://www.handwriting.gr/index.files/conclusions.htm
- Ολοκληρωμένη παρουσίαση της Ηλεκτροστατικής Συσκευής Ανίχνευσης (ESDA): http://www.handwriting.gr/index.files/esdalist.htm